Burning mouth, stinging tongue: cause

Symptoms such as: burning in the mouth and in the tongue, or when stinging the tongue - can be observed with a number of disorders, both of a dental nature and of diseases of internal organs. Unfortunately, dentists rarely can make the correct diagnosis, because Dentists specializing in oral mucosa diseases are extremely rare.

The easiest way to make a correct diagnosis is for patients who live in cities where there is a dental department at a medical school. In the dental clinic attached to such a university, you can always make an appointment with the teachers of the department and get a comprehensive consultation.

Why sting language: the reason

Why there is a burning sensation in the mouth, why tingling of the tongue - the cause of such symptoms is associated with the following conditions and diseases in the oral cavity ...

  • Dryness of the oral mucosa (dry mouth) -
    symptoms of dry mouth and burning of the tongue are inextricably linked. Insufficient moistening of the mucous membrane with saliva causes the appearance of numerous small cracks on the mucous membrane (including the tongue), lips, which may be accompanied by a feeling of “pinching the tongue” or burning sensation. Especially tingling will be pronounced if at the same time you eat drinks or foods containing acids.

    Dryness is usually caused by a decrease in the volume of saliva secreted by the salivary glands, less often by the habit of breathing through the mouth (especially against the background of constant nasal congestion). In some cases, it can be caused by dehydration or Sjogren's disease. Treatment of dry mouth is very difficult, and for successful treatment it is very important to determine the cause of dry mouth.

  • Oral candidiasis (fig.2-4) -
    in candidiasis, a fungal infection of the oral mucosa occurs, especially the tongue is affected by the fungus. Candida fungus is present in the oral cavity and perfectly healthy people. Only reducing the body's defenses and the barrier function of the mucous membrane - Candida acquires pathogenic properties.

    Reduced immunity of the body and local immunity of the oral cavity can occur on the background of taking antibiotics, corticosteroids, the presence of malignant tumors, radiation and chemotherapy, blood diseases, chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, dysbiosis, beriberi, diabetes mellitus.

    Symptoms: There are several forms of candidiasis, and the symptoms can vary greatly depending on the form. Mostly on the mucous membrane of the tongue / cheeks, you may notice white spots or a rich white cheesy plaque. In some cases (with atrophic candidiasis) there is no plaque, but the mucous membrane has a bright red color. Patients may feel that they are stinging the tip of the tongue, or have a burning sensation of the tongue.

    Treatment of fungal infections of the oral cavity must be carried out on the background of the rehabilitation of the oral cavity from caries, the treatment of chronic inflammation of the tonsils (if any).

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  • Poor dentures -
    if you are pinching the tip of the tongue and you have removable dentures, then you can immediately suspect several possible reasons. First, the tingling and burning of the tongue may occur due to an allergic reaction to an excess of monomer in acrylic plastic, which happens if the dental technician has disturbed the ratio of plastic ingredients.

    Secondly, the reason may be too large a base of the prosthesis, as a result of which there is too little space for the tongue and its mobility is restricted. Thirdly, patients with long-term use of prostheses noticeably deteriorate the quality of oral hygiene, which leads to the parallel development of prosthetic stomatitis (this can be either a fungal or bacterial infection).

  • Allergic reaction -
    This may be contact allergies to tongue-in-contact materials of a removable denture (plastic, metal basis of clasp denture), to metal of artificial dental crowns. The symptom, when the tip of the tongue is red and stinging, is in some cases the result of an allergy.

    If you stop wearing a removable denture for a while and start drinking anti-allergic drugs, then reducing the severity of tingling / burning symptoms just tells you about the allergic nature of these symptoms. In 99% of cases, an allergic reaction to a prosthesis is also associated with poor-quality production of a plastic prosthesis (excess monomer).

  • Hard dental deposits (pic.5,6) -
    In many people with inadequate hygiene, whole conglomerates of tartar can be seen on the inner surface of the lower teeth. Dental calculus is composed of billions of pathogens that produce toxins and pathogens.

    Constant contact of the tongue with the infected surface of dental plaque can lead to chronic low-grade inflammation of the mucous membrane (especially at the tip of the tongue), which can cause such symptoms as: pinching the tongue, burning the tip of the tongue. In the presence of deposits, it is necessary to carry out an ultrasonic cleaning of the deposits at the periodontist.

  • Language diseases  -
    There are a great many different diseases of the tongue, but mainly patients have two diseases, in which tingling of the tongue and its burning are most common:

    1) Desquamative glossitis: this disease is also called the term "geographic language." This is due to the fact that in the language of this disease foci of red color are found (in these areas the death of the epithelium of the tongue occurred). Over time, foci may again become covered by the epithelium, but appear in other places of the tongue, i.e. the drawing changes all the time and resembles a geographical map (Fig.7-9).



    2) Folded tongue: this disease is characterized by the presence of large folds in the tongue, which are located, as a rule, symmetrically. The largest is the longitudinal fold, numerous transverse ones depart from it. The presence of folds predisposes to the development of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the tongue, candidiasis, sensitivity to various stimuli (fig. 10-12).

    Treatment of diseases of the tongue is complex: complete sanation of the oral cavity and inflammatory diseases of the throat, it is possible to conduct a microbiological study, the results of which are prescribed drugs (antibacterial or antifungal, or others).

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  • Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa (fig. 13,14) -
    this disease is characterized by impaired desquamation of the mucous membrane epithelium, with the result that white plaques can form on the surface of the oral mucosa (including the tongue). When leukoplakia, one of the symptoms may be burning. In most cases, the disease is asymptomatic.

    It occurs, as a rule, in smokers. Refers to precancer, i.e. if untreated, it can transform into cancer. The treatment consists in the complete cessation of smoking, the rehabilitation of the oral cavity, the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of the throat, the use of keratolytic drugs.

  • Herpetic infection (fig.15) -
    Most patients experience herpetic stomatitis, in which numerous bubbles form first in the oral cavity and then eroded, which in turn can cause tingling or burning. Herpetic bubbles and erosion can occur anywhere on the oral mucosa, including the tip of the tongue.
  • Teeth grinding -
    This condition is called bruxism. It is expressed in the fact that a person at night unconsciously clenches his teeth strongly, which is expressed in their gnashing of each other. Many patients do not know that they have bruxism, because at this time they are sleeping. Usually, the diagnosis is helped by relatives who can hear the night gnash.

    With bruxism, the teeth can usually be seen in the tongue (fig.16). Often, in addition to the prints, there may be a burning sensation of the tongue or tingling.

  • Red lichen planus (Figure 17.18) -
    This is a chronic disease in which either foci of hyperkeratosis may appear on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity (they look like white spots, which may resemble leukoplakia or candidiasis), or erosion and ulcers. Tingling and burning is typical for erosive-ulcerative forms. The disease is treated by an immunologist.

Causes are not dental in nature -

Below we consider: why there is a burning sensation in the mouth, why tongue bites - the reasons are not dental in nature, which are associated with various conditions and diseases of the body as a whole ...

  • iron deficiency, folic acid, various vitamins, zinc,
  • anemia, pathological blood diseases (leukemia),
  • hypothyroidism, other hormonal disorders,
  • stomach acid reflux,
  • type 2 diabetes
  • psychological factors
  • malnutrition,
  • medication: protease inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (for example, captopril).

We hope that our article: Burning in the mouth, stinging the tongue, what to do - turned out to be useful to you! Author: dentist Kamensky K.V., 19 years experience.

Watch the video: Dr. Oz Demonstrates How to Soothe a Burned Tongue (September 2019).

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